Russian Nuclear Weapons Tests Effects Summary For Civil Defence Use
Publication date 2015-01-09
Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0
Russian nuclear weapons tests effects summary for civil defence use
Extracts from: V. A. Logachev and L. A. Mikhalikhina, Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests, ITT Corp., Alexandria, VA., report ADA485845, March 2008. The Soviet Union exposed 8,000 animals (40% of these were sheep) in various structures, vehicles, and in the open and shadowed positions, to nuclear explosions in order to assess the effects in different situations, and to different combinations of the various effects of nuclear detonations. Instead of simply giving the straightforward data on effects from specific nuclear tests, the data is presented only as processed output having been combined into three categories of yield range. However, it is still an important report.
In this summary, we have edited out "chaff" to enable attention to be focussed on the useful data contained in the report. The "chaff" we removed consists of general, non-quantitative, descriptions that convey no useful information for civil defence, or information that is only relevant to the highly inappropriate conditions of the nuclear test, i.e. an unobstructed desert with no buildings or city skylines to shield the effects of the thermal flash on the eyes, or to shield the initial nuclear radiation flash. We have excluded initial radiation data since no doses or radiation spectra are given in the report, just descriptions of radiation sickness to various kinds of animals. This is of no use to civil defence, because the shielding of neutrons and initial gamma rays by different kinds of structure is dependent on the type of radiation (neutrons, or gamma rays), the amount of scattering it has undergone when passing through a city skyline (which reduces its energy, making shielding easier) and the weapon design (fusion of tritium and deuterium releases 14.1 MeV neutrons, which are highly penetrating in comparison to the mean 1.1 MeV energy neutrons from fission).
The information given on blast and thermal effects from the single documented high yield 400 kt low altitude burst on open terrain and in trenches, buildings and vehicles is of particular value since the report allows the relative life-saving shielding factors due to the various locations of sheep etc to be determined by comparing the mortality rates. For a comparison of the Russian and American data on protection from thermal flash by clothing, see http://glasstone.blogspot.co.uk/2009/08/thermal-radiation-pulse-shape-and.html
See also https://archive.org/details/Anderson_shelter as well as https://archive.org/details/BritishNuclearTestOperationHurricaneDeclassifiedReportsToWinston
Ocr ABBYY FineReader 9.0
Scanner Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1.6.0
Uploaded by 10987654321 on